Alpha and beta diversity of encrusting foraminifera that recruit to long-term experiments along a carbonate platform-to-slope gradient: Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implications

Title:
Alpha and beta diversity of encrusting foraminifera that recruit to long-term experiments along a carbonate platform-to-slope gradient: Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implications
Authors:
Walker, Sally E.; Parsons-Hubbard, Karla; Richardson-White, Suzanne; Brett, Carlton E.; Powell, Eric N.
Abstract:
The spatial and temporal distribution and diversity of sediment-dwelling foraminifera are reasonably well known, but encrusting (hard-substrate dwelling) foraminifera are little studied. Encrusting foraminifera are common in the world's oceans, attached to floating debris or marine animals in the water column to living on rocks, sand grains and organisms in benthic environments from shallow to deep marine regions. With projected ocean acidification and warming conditions, these important calcifying protists that comprise beaches, buffer sediments, and contribute to complex food webs are potentially in peril. Results indicate that calcifying foraminifera were the first to colonize experimental molluscan substrates within the first year in shallow habitats, with colonization offshore in subsequent years. Agglutinated foraminifera become more common after one year. Species richness (alpha diversity) remained relatively similar throughout the study, but species turnover (beta diversity) was greatest within the first year and between the shelf/slope break and deeper water, following the thermocline and photic zone regions. The equivalent of the Shannon Entropy Index provided important information on beta diversity and community structure. Paleobathymetric distributions can be resolved after six years into four distinct foraminiferal distributional zones: shallow shelf (15 m), outer shelf (33 m), shelf/slope break (73-88 m), and slope depths (>213 m to 267 m). Some encrusting foraminifera are invasive, settling in high numbers within the first year, and increasing their abundance through the duration of the experiment. A foraminiferan, Discorbis bentheloti, was discovered to bioerode carbonate, and is a potentially excellent paleobathymetric indicator for 15-33 m depths. Results differ from previously reported pioneer and climax foraminiferal communities documented for Caribbean coral reefs, because long-term experiments reveal the spatial and temporal development and distribution of carbonate-producing encrusting foraminifera in these climatically-sensitive regions. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Citation:
Walker, Sally E., Karla Parsons-Hubbard, Suzanne Richardson-White, et. al. 2011. "Alpha and beta diversity of encrusting foraminifera that recruit to long-term experiments along a carbonate platform-to-slope gradient: Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implications." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 312(3-4): 325-349.
Publisher:
Elsevier
DATE ISSUED:
2011-12-15
Department:
Geology
Type:
Article
PUBLISHED VERSION:
10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.04.028
Additional Links:
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031018211002306
Notes:
Special Issue: The Shelf and Slope Experimental Taphonomy Initiative (SSETI): Thirteen years of taphonomic observations on carbonate and wood in the Bahamas and Gulf of Mexico
PERMANENT LINK:
http://hdl.handle.net/11282/595948

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorWalker, Sally E.en
dc.contributor.authorParsons-Hubbard, Karlaen
dc.contributor.authorRichardson-White, Suzanneen
dc.contributor.authorBrett, Carlton E.en
dc.contributor.authorPowell, Eric N.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-09T15:47:53Zen
dc.date.available2016-02-09T15:47:53Zen
dc.date.issued2011-12-15en
dc.identifier.citationWalker, Sally E., Karla Parsons-Hubbard, Suzanne Richardson-White, et. al. 2011. "Alpha and beta diversity of encrusting foraminifera that recruit to long-term experiments along a carbonate platform-to-slope gradient: Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implications." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 312(3-4): 325-349.en
dc.identifier.issn0031-0182en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11282/595948en
dc.description.abstractThe spatial and temporal distribution and diversity of sediment-dwelling foraminifera are reasonably well known, but encrusting (hard-substrate dwelling) foraminifera are little studied. Encrusting foraminifera are common in the world's oceans, attached to floating debris or marine animals in the water column to living on rocks, sand grains and organisms in benthic environments from shallow to deep marine regions. With projected ocean acidification and warming conditions, these important calcifying protists that comprise beaches, buffer sediments, and contribute to complex food webs are potentially in peril. Results indicate that calcifying foraminifera were the first to colonize experimental molluscan substrates within the first year in shallow habitats, with colonization offshore in subsequent years. Agglutinated foraminifera become more common after one year. Species richness (alpha diversity) remained relatively similar throughout the study, but species turnover (beta diversity) was greatest within the first year and between the shelf/slope break and deeper water, following the thermocline and photic zone regions. The equivalent of the Shannon Entropy Index provided important information on beta diversity and community structure. Paleobathymetric distributions can be resolved after six years into four distinct foraminiferal distributional zones: shallow shelf (15 m), outer shelf (33 m), shelf/slope break (73-88 m), and slope depths (>213 m to 267 m). Some encrusting foraminifera are invasive, settling in high numbers within the first year, and increasing their abundance through the duration of the experiment. A foraminiferan, Discorbis bentheloti, was discovered to bioerode carbonate, and is a potentially excellent paleobathymetric indicator for 15-33 m depths. Results differ from previously reported pioneer and climax foraminiferal communities documented for Caribbean coral reefs, because long-term experiments reveal the spatial and temporal development and distribution of carbonate-producing encrusting foraminifera in these climatically-sensitive regions. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.en
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherElsevieren
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.04.028en
dc.relation.urlhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031018211002306en
dc.subject.departmentGeologyen_US
dc.titleAlpha and beta diversity of encrusting foraminifera that recruit to long-term experiments along a carbonate platform-to-slope gradient: Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implicationsen_US
dc.typeArticleen
dc.description.notesSpecial Issue: The Shelf and Slope Experimental Taphonomy Initiative (SSETI): Thirteen years of taphonomic observations on carbonate and wood in the Bahamas and Gulf of Mexicoen_US
dc.identifier.journalPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecologyen
dc.subject.keywordBeta diversityen_US
dc.subject.keywordDispersalen_US
dc.subject.keywordInvasibilityen_US
dc.subject.keywordEcological incumbenten_US
dc.subject.keywordEncrusting foraminiferaen_US
dc.subject.keywordOpportunisticen_US
dc.subject.keywordCarbonatesen_US
dc.identifier.volume312en_US
dc.identifier.issue3-4en_US
dc.identifier.startpage325en_US
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecologyen
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