Test Of Recrudescence Hypothesis For Overwintering Of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Gray Catbirds

Title:
Test Of Recrudescence Hypothesis For Overwintering Of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Gray Catbirds
Authors:
Owen, Jennifer C.; Moore, Frank R.; Williams, Amanda J.; Stark, Lillian; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Morley, V. J.; Krohn, Alexander R.; Garvin, Mary C.
Abstract:
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) epizootics are infrequent, but they can lead to high mortality in infected horses and humans. Despite the importance of EEEV to human and animal health, little is known about how the virus overwinters and reinitiates transmission each spring, particularly in temperate regions where infected adult mosquitoes are unlikely to survive through the winter. One hypothesis to explain the mechanism by which this virus persists from year to year is the spring recrudescence of latent virus in avian reservoir hosts. In this study, we tested the recrudescence hypothesis with gray catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis) captured in northern Ohio (July-August 2007). Birds were experimentally infected with EEEV on 1 October 2007. In January 2008, they were then exposed to exogenous testosterone and/or extended photoperiod to initiate reactivation of latent EEEV infection. All birds became viremic with EEEV, with mean viremia of 6.0 log(10) plaque-forming units/ml serum occurring at 1 d postinoculation. One male in the testosterone, long-day treatment group had EEEV viral RNA in a cloacal swab collected on 18 January 2008. Otherwise, no other catbirds exhibited reactivated infections in cloacal swabs or blood. Antibody titers fluctuated over the course of the study, with lowest titers observed in January 2008, which corresponded with the lowest mean weight of the birds. No EEEV viral RNA was detected in the blood, kidney, spleen, brain, liver, and lower intestine upon necropsy at 19 wk postinfection.
Citation:
Owen, Jennifer C., Frank R. Moore, Amanda J. Williams, Lillian Stark, et al. 2011. "Test Of Recrudescence Hypothesis For Overwintering Of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Gray Catbirds." Journal Of Medical Entomology 48(4): 896-903.
Publisher:
Entomological Society of America
DATE ISSUED:
2011-07
Department:
Biology
Type:
article
PUBLISHED VERSION:
10.1603/ME10274
PERMANENT LINK:
http://hdl.handle.net/11282/310080

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorOwen, Jennifer C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMoore, Frank R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Amanda J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorStark, Lillianen_US
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Elizabeth A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMorley, V. J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKrohn, Alexander R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGarvin, Mary C.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2013-12-23T16:24:49Z-
dc.date.available2013-12-23T16:24:49Z-
dc.date.issued2011-07en
dc.identifier.citationOwen, Jennifer C., Frank R. Moore, Amanda J. Williams, Lillian Stark, et al. 2011. "Test Of Recrudescence Hypothesis For Overwintering Of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Gray Catbirds." Journal Of Medical Entomology 48(4): 896-903.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0022-2585en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11282/310080-
dc.description.abstractEastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) epizootics are infrequent, but they can lead to high mortality in infected horses and humans. Despite the importance of EEEV to human and animal health, little is known about how the virus overwinters and reinitiates transmission each spring, particularly in temperate regions where infected adult mosquitoes are unlikely to survive through the winter. One hypothesis to explain the mechanism by which this virus persists from year to year is the spring recrudescence of latent virus in avian reservoir hosts. In this study, we tested the recrudescence hypothesis with gray catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis) captured in northern Ohio (July-August 2007). Birds were experimentally infected with EEEV on 1 October 2007. In January 2008, they were then exposed to exogenous testosterone and/or extended photoperiod to initiate reactivation of latent EEEV infection. All birds became viremic with EEEV, with mean viremia of 6.0 log(10) plaque-forming units/ml serum occurring at 1 d postinoculation. One male in the testosterone, long-day treatment group had EEEV viral RNA in a cloacal swab collected on 18 January 2008. Otherwise, no other catbirds exhibited reactivated infections in cloacal swabs or blood. Antibody titers fluctuated over the course of the study, with lowest titers observed in January 2008, which corresponded with the lowest mean weight of the birds. No EEEV viral RNA was detected in the blood, kidney, spleen, brain, liver, and lower intestine upon necropsy at 19 wk postinfection.en_US
dc.publisherEntomological Society of Americaen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1603/ME10274-
dc.subject.departmentBiologyen_US
dc.titleTest Of Recrudescence Hypothesis For Overwintering Of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus In Gray Catbirdsen_US
dc.typearticleen_US
dc.identifier.journalJournal Of Medical Entomologyen_US
dc.subject.keywordEastern equine encephalitis virusen_US
dc.subject.keywordOverwinteringen_US
dc.subject.keywordDumetella carolinensisen_US
dc.subject.keywordTestosteroneen_US
dc.subject.keywordRecrudescenceen_US
dc.identifier.volume48en_US
dc.identifier.issue4en_US
dc.identifier.startpage896en_US
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